Alexander V. Frolov
Faraday Lab Ltd
Let’s calculate heat energy output resulting from recombination of one hydrogen molecule. From the Longmuir and Wood results of 1911 it is known that recombination of hydrogen releases some heat energy:
H + H = H2 + 435 x 103 (J per gram-molecule). F.1
One gram-molecule is about 6 x 1023 molecules (the Avogadro number). So, heat energy output resulting from recombination of one hydrogen molecule is
H + H = H2 + 7.25 x 10-19 (J) F.2
Dissociation of molecular hydrogen to atomic state requires the same amount of energy 'Ed'.
H2 + Ed = H + H, where Ed = 7.25 x 10-19 F.3
In our experiments of 2003 we detected some anomalies of heat output for 1000-1500oK. Here is the question: what is energy of molecular motion for 500 – 1500oK? We are considering here the kinetic energy of motion.
Energy can be calculated as
E = 1,5kT, where k = 1.38 x 10-23 (J/K) F.4
For T = 500oK it is 10-20 Joules.
For T = 1500oK it is 3 х 10-20 Joules.
Conclusion: This energy is too small for
the dissociation of molecular hydrogen (F.1) and
the experimental facts of the low-temperature high-efficiency operation
require an in-depth analysis.
This analysis lead us to the discovery of the effect.
High-temperature dissociation also seems to be unexplainable since the
energy of heat motion is not sufficient for dissociation. The percentage
of the hydrogen dissociation was measured by Longmuir as 1% for T = 2400oK
and 99% for T = 7000oK.
Let’s calculate the energy of molecular motion for this temperature:
T = 2400oK corresponds to 5 х 10-20 (J)
T = 7000oK corresponds to 1.4 х 10-19 (J)
This seems to be very strange because these energy levels are lower than Ed = 7.25 х 10-19 (J).
The answer to this problem can be deduced from the experimental facts of the present research work. It lead to the discovery and explanation of the effects.
At first, it is essential to note that the masses of individual tungsten molecules differ greatly and so the regularity described in E.V. Alexandov’s invention can be applied to processes of this kind. The regularity appears in a special behavior of bodies with different masses at their elastic collision and shows that at elastic collision the energy transfer coefficient depends on the ratio of the masses of the colliding bodies. For example, E.V. Alexandov’s experiments show that if a steel ball falls from some height on to a steel stationary plate, it can jump higher than it's starting point. E.V. Alexandov received his diploma #13 for this discovery on October 30, 1957. At the present time the invention is widely used in various machines which have a hammering action. They utilise this method of highly effective energy transfer. In accordance with this method a body of small mass gets extra kinetic energy at elastic collision with a body of large mass as a result of the body’s inner energy transfer.
We mentioned above that the minimum efficiency was at about 2000oK and then it is increasing. This temperature of 2000oK is known as point of boiling of tungsten oxide. So, we have to consider this aspect carefully.
The experiments were organized with system filled with hydrogen of dew point -60oC. So, small amount of water vapor was involved in this process. Also it is necessary to note that production methods of the experimental device assumed that surface of the tungsten filament include tungsten oxide WO3. In this case we have to take into account the “water cycle”: Oxidation of tungsten (F.5)
Q + W + 3H2O = WO3 + 3H2 F.5.
and de-oxidation of tungsten
WO3 + 3H2 = Q + W + 3H2O F.6.
Let’s try to find why this “water cycle” can be responsible for high efficiency of the process in low temperature area and for pulsing mode of heating. In temperature area between 700 – 2000oK the tungsten oxide is melting but it is not evaporated yet. So, we can assume energy transfer from hot WO3 molecule to H2 molecule by means of the “collision interaction”, which have place for the case of oxidation (F.5).
The fundamental law of conservation of momentum in this case can be formulated as F.7.
m1V1 = m2V2 F.7
where m1 is mass of WO3 molecule, V1 is velocity of WO3 molecule; m2 and V2 are mass and velocity of hydrogen molecule.
What is velocity of the hydrogen molecule after interaction?
Velocity of heat oscillations can be calculated as
V = (3kT/m)0.5 (m/sec) F.8
This approach usually is applied for the gas state of matter but in formula F8. velocity V is velocity of heat oscillations of WO3 molecules on surface of tungsten filament for temperatures below WO3 evaporation.
From F.8 velocity V1 is about 454 m/sec for T = 1500oK. Mass m1 is about 3,87 x 10-25 (kg).
Let’s assume that molecule WO3 transferred all quantity of motion (the kinetic momentum) to the hydrogen molecule. Velocity of this hydrogen molecule after interaction can be calculated from F.9:
V2 = (m1V1) / m2 F.9
The mass m2 is about 3.34 x1 0-27 (kg) that is about 1% of m1. Due to difference of masses velocity V2 is great, for example, for T = 1500oK we can calculate that V2 = 52664 m/sec.
Kinetic energy of the hydrogen molecule after collision with WO3 of 1500oK can be calculated:
Ek = 0.5m2V22 F.10
This energy Ek = 4.6 x 10-18 (J) is about 6 times more than energy of dissociation Ed = 7.25 x 10-19(J).
We can conclude: the physical system of two colliding molecules can have a very high efficiency if the mass-ratio of the molecules is great. In other words, the mass-ratio or mass-asymmetry of interacting bodies is a “key factor”. Oscillating hot heavy molecules of tungsten can provide great velocity of light-weight hydrogen molecules due to the Law of Conservation of Momentum. It is necessary to note that an inertial phenomenon is involved in this process since it is just the inertial properties which differ between tungsten and hydrogen. Any explanation of inertia is related to the concept of the aether and using these concepts the effects of low temperature dissociation and high-efficiency operation can be explained. We can assume that the aether will lose it's "heat energy" when we are getting additional heat energy from the recombination process. The extra heat energy can be estimated from the effect of temporal displacement and gravity anomalies.
Our estimate of this energy transformation can be following: for the case of energy of a W atom about 1.4 х 10-19 (J) we can estimate heat output after recombination of one hydrogen molecule as 7.25 x 10-19 (J). In other words, a 1400W electric input can theoretically provide a heat output of 7250W. Other design variations can provide even higher efficiency (Hg vapour with gas H2 or other variants).
Sure, collision of molecules is different from the case of macro-collisions but some macro-world mechanical analogies of this effect (paradox of two-bodies collision) were considered by other researchers and theorists. However, we suppose that for the first time the real highly efficient system based on molecular mass-asymmetrical collision was designed, investigated and explained theoretically in this project by the author.
So, purposefulness “water cycle” can be used to get high-efficient heater in the case of pulsed mode and moist hydrogen. It is necessary to determine max quantity of water vapor. Unnecessary water vapor in the system is a critical factor since in this case all tungsten can be transformed to WO3 and the filament will be destroyed. Also too small amount of WO3 is a mistake since it cannot provide a very powerful effect.
Operating temperature for this effect should be below 2000oK to prevent evaporation of WO3. During the pause (heating is switch-off) WO3 will be de-oxidized by hydrogen and next impulse of heating will produce new high-energy hydrogen molecules and impulse of the heat output.
One more theoretical note: other heavy atom matter can be used for this technology instead of tungsten, if its temperature of evaporation corresponds to energy 'Ed' that allow hydrogen dissociation and recombination, i.e. provide both asymmetrical collision due to the mass difference and energy transfer due to hydrogen dissociation-recombination cycle.
At last, by this mass-asymmetry collision effect (MAC-effect) we can explain classical hydrogen dissociation – recombination cycles for the case of hot tungsten filament. Consideration of this process is analogical to calculation of kinetic energy above but it is necessary to use value of W-atom mass instead of WO3 -molecule mass. Realization of this method with tungsten filament can be designed for 3500oK maximum since tungsten is melting for more temperature. Even in this case of 5% hydrogen dissociation it is possible to get very high efficiency of operation since energy transfer between hot tungsten and molecular hydrogen also is based on the MAC-effect.
The method can be basis for high efficient heating and energy generation. One more applied aspect is based on calculations of the velocity of hydrogen molecules that is about 50 – 100 km/sec. It is more than orbital velocity so this method can be very perspective aerospace technology. It seems to be possible designing of some closed system operating on this principle that uses the “water cycle” described above and special shape of the tungsten surface. It will not be similar to usual rocket since output of the reactive mass flow (hydrogen) can be collected and used again in the “water-cycle”.